SteroidsSteroids taken by mouth are commonly prescribed for spinal conditions. This includes:
- Low back pain
- Neck pain
- Spinal inflammatory arthritis
Examples of steroids:
Selective Serotonin Receptor Uptake InhibitorSelective serotonin receptor uptake inhibitors help those with neck and low back pain in a variety of ways. These include reducing the mental and emotional effects of chronic pain. But, selective serotonin receptor uptake inhibitors can boost the fracture risk. This type of medication can cause bone loss in older women and reduced bone density in men and children.
Examples of selective serotonin receptor uptake inhibitors:
Certain AnticonvulsantsAnticonvulsants are used to control seizures. However, they have been found to help individuals with spinal nerve pain. But there are some types of anticonvulsants that can increase the liver’s vitamin D metabolism. This lowers the blood’s vitamin D levels. Vitamin D is essential to the body’s ability to absorb calcium. That means that lower vitamin D levels can cause bone loss.
Examples of anticonvulsants:
- Valproic acid
Certain Diabetic MedicationsThere are two types of diabetic medications that can increase the risk of fracture. Thiazolidinediones known as TZD’s and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. The TZD’s increase the fat cells in the bone marrow, and lower the bone-building cells. The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors can reduce bone density.
Examples of TZD’s:
Examples of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors:
Hormone MedicationsMedications that reduce estrogen or androgen levels in the body also increase the bone’s absorbing cell activity. And this can lead to bone density loss.
Examples of hormone medications:
- Medroxyprogesterone acetate
AntacidsAntacids both over-the-counter and prescription that contain aluminum help to neutralize stomach acid. There are other medications called H2-blockers also known as proton-pump inhibitors. These reduce how much acid the stomach produces. While these aid in reducing heartburn, stomach pain, etc, long-term use can reduce the body’s ability to absorb calcium and thus increase the risk for fracture.
Examples of these types of antacids:
- Aluminum hydroxide
- Magnesium hydroxide
Examples of Proton-Pump Inhibitors:
Blood Thinners and AnticoagulantsThese medications help reduce the risk of stroke, can interfere with the body’s ability to absorb calcium. They reduce the activity of the bone-building cells. This causes bone loss and increases the risk of fracture.
Examples of anticoagulants or blood thinners:
- Enoxaparin sodium
DiureticsLoop diuretics work by reducing inflammation/swelling along with water retention by increasing the kidneys urine production. These medications can cause the kidneys to remove key nutrients like calcium, potassium, and magnesium to help increase bone production. Reduction in all of these increases the risk of bone loss and a spinal fracture.
Examples of loop diuretics:
- Ethacrynic acid